concrete gpr cocoa

Concrete GPR PT Cable Detection

Concrete GPR PT Cable Detection

Concrete GPR PT Cable Detection can locate rebar and post-tension cables within the concrete using Hilti PS 1000 state of the art GPR technology. Reinforcing steel locations are marked directly on the concrete surface to ensure safe and efficient drilling that will preserve the integrity of the structure and reduce the need for repairs or patching. This helps our clients conduct core drilling without accidents, injuries or delay. Concrete PT Cable Detection is also useful when preparing for a renovation that includes electrical outfitting, plumbing, fire protection services, drain installation and duct work.

concrete gpr xray tampa
EMA perform GPR using hilti PS 1000 in Tampa and surrounding areas

EMBEDDED ELECTRICAL Concrete GPR SERVICES

When core drilling or saw cutting in commercial and industrial locations is needed, accurate detection of electrical conduits in concrete GPR is essential for preventing safety risks, power outages and costly damages. Concrete GPR PT Cable Detection Scan provides two specific but different scanning services in this area: Elevated concrete slab scanning and concrete slab-on-grade locating. Elevated concrete slab scanning involves detecting embedded electrical conduits prior to core drilling a hole through the slab.

Concrete Xray in Tampa
EMA consultants can perform GPR  in Tampa, Orlando, Clearwater

Concrete slab-on-grade locating – a concrete slab poured directly over dirt – involves scanning a trench line for conduits before conducting saw cutting and trenching to install a sanitary pipe, water line or something similar.

CONCRETE GPR ASSESSMENT

Also crucial in the PT Cable Detection  for rebar and PT cables imaging process is determining what’s in the concrete structure. This includes gauging the concrete thickness, what the rebar content is, its spacing and its elevation within the slab. This extensive, critical information helps our clients and their teams to understand the makeup of the concrete. we also can determine concrete covers over the rebar using state of the art equipment.

VOIDS DETECTION AND LOCATIONS

We can also locate voids – air gaps between the sub-grade, dirt and the concrete slab-on- grade – hidden below concrete or asphalt surfaces. This degradation occurs over time due to compaction, pipe ruptures or erosion but is often undetectable on the surface. EMA Concrete PT Cable detection Scan ground penetrating radar can help our clients locate these areas and – most important – avoid collapses.

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Tampa Concrete GPR XRay

TAMPA CONCRETE GPR DETECTION

Tampa Concrete GPR firm EMA engineers are able to locate rebar and post-tension cables within the concrete using Hilti PS 1000 state of the art GPR technology. Reinforcing steel locations are marked directly on the concrete surface to ensure safe and efficient drilling that will preserve the integrity of the structure and reduce the need for repairs or patching. This helps our clients conduct core drilling without accidents, injuries or delay. Tampa Concrete GPR scanning is also useful when preparing for a renovation that includes electrical outfitting, plumbing, fire protection services, drain installation and duct work.

tampa concrete gpr xray
Tampa Concrete GPR EMA perform rebar, using hilti PS 1000 in Tampa and surrounding areas

LOCATING EMBEDDED ELECTRICAL SERVICES by TAMPA CONCRETE GPR

When core drilling or saw cutting in commercial and industrial locations is needed, accurate detection of electrical conduits is essential for preventing safety risks, power outages and costly damages. Concrete scanning provides two specific but different scanning services in this area: Elevated concrete slab scanning and concrete slab-on-grade locating. Elevated concrete slab scanning involves detecting embedded electrical conduits prior to core drilling a hole through the slab.

Concrete Xray in Tampa
EMA consultants can perform Tampa Concrete GPR in Clearwater

Concrete slab-on-grade locating – a concrete slab poured directly over dirt – involves scanning a trench line for conduits before conducting saw cutting and trenching to install a sanitary pipe, water line or something similar.

TAMPA CONCRETE GPR ASSESSMENT

Also crucial in the imaging process is determining what’s in the concrete structure. This includes gauging the concrete thickness, what the rebar content is, its spacing and its elevation within the slab. This extensive, critical information helps our clients and their teams to understand the makeup of the concrete. we also can determine concrete covers over the rebar using state of the art equipment.

VOIDS DETECTION AND LOCATIONS

We can also locate voids – air gaps between the sub-grade, dirt and the concrete slab-on- grade – hidden below concrete or asphalt surfaces. This degradation occurs over time due to compaction, pipe ruptures or erosion but is often undetectable on the surface. EMA Concrete ground penetrating radar can help our clients locate these areas and – most important – avoid collapses.

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silo inspections, structural

Silo Inspections

Silo Inspections

Silo Inspections are structural inspection of large, static, and unmoving complex and dynamic structural system. Flexing and bending under various loads in ways unapparent to the naked eye. Silos structural inspections are serious structural inspections.

EMA is committed to silo engineering and silo structural inspections. Our structural engineer team includes registered engineers with decades of experience, as well as members of the American Concrete Institute 313 Committee that writes the code for silo design. This diverse expertise allows us to design silos that are  practical and economical to construct, and that are configured to withstand years of filling and reclaim and deliver durable structural performance.

silo inspections tampa
EMA silo structural inspections Florida, Louisiana, Texas & Mississippi

In addition to having design capability of silos and complex hopper systems, EMA can inspect and assessed silos of all types and sizes in locations around the world. Large repairs and replacement costs are often operationally problematic and difficult to justify. Our structural engineers focuses on realistic, practical recommendations that balance the need for rigorous assessment with the need for continued operations. We work with owners to determine the appropriate levels of investigation for each unique facility. And we conduct silo  inspections with an eye to minimizing impact to your process.

Structural Silo Inspections Engineer’s Duties

Because we have expertise at both design and inspections for cement and chemical plans and storage tanks for various industries, consisting of structural condition and assessment, we offer unique advantages in both disciplines. Our inspection experience has taught us what works well in silo design, and which practices may lead to deterioration and failure. And our design expertise means we know what to look for beyond the surface, so we can focus our inspections on root causes and design repairs that address the source of deterioration. Regardless of the commodity handled, whether you are an owner, operator, or constructor, our experience with over hundreds of projects can help you economically construct and maintain silos that will perform reliably in the long term.

EMA silo inspections Florida

Regular silo inspections, on annual, two- or five-year intervals, can help identify issues that increase the risk of structure collapse. Based on inspection results, preventative maintenance can be performed to avoid larger more expensive repairs later. The cost of preventive maintenance and repair is minimal when compared to the financial and physical toll that a full collapse can have on your company and team.

A proactive safety program should always include annual or semi-annual silo inspections to check for concealed damage and to assess visible problems that could lead to structural failure.

Silo Inspections Can Prevent Collapse

Collapses are often the result of preventable structural failures that would have been identified during routine inspection. Common issues that cause concrete structure and concrete silo failure include foundation deterioration, roof collapse due to roof beam structural issues, improper material filling and unloading procedures in silos, silo wall delamination or deterioration, silo discharge cone or bin floor issues. Steel silos suffer from corrosion, which can be inspected using wear-measure thickness ultrasonic gauges.

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Concrete Rebar GPR X-Rays

Concrete Rebar GPR USE

concrete rebar GPR XPT Cable detection.
EMA engineers perform concrete rebar GPR and concrete x-ray for rebar

Concrete Rebar GPR X-Ray NDT testings for Concrete, Oil & Gas Installations & Aerospace sector are provided by us. We use radioisotopes or x-rays without radioactive materials or state of art pulse X-ray systems to provide digital imaging using X-rays, be embedded in concrete rebar GPR xray for PT cables, steel rebar, Welds, interior flaws et

EMA perform concrete GPR x-ray service undergo special training and certification. Due to the service nature, our analysts are fully aware of different on-the-job hazards and the safety procedures to be followed. Regardless of the project scope, we always come prepared and ready to take on the challenge.

CONCRETE REBAR GPR, X-RAY NDT TESTINGS.

Concrete rebar GPR X-Ray NDT testings are the non-destructive application of x-rays or gamma rays to image the interior of a concrete target to identify and locate rebar, conduit, post tension cables and other embedded objects. It is considered a branch of industrial NDT radiography testing. According to the EPA, radiography is useful when you want to avoid damaging the material being tested. Practically the most common targets for concrete x-ray are suspended slabs or concrete walls that may be renovated or retrofitted as part of a larger structure by cutting new openings.

Although cutting through rebar will weaken a structure it can often be achieved safely and within structural tolerance limits. Cutting through post tension cables poses more serious issues and is rarely deliberately executed. Likewise conduit should nearly always be avoided and accidental cuts can necessitate costly repairs, safety concerns and project slowdowns.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CONCRETE Rebar GPR AND XRAY.

Concrete Rebar GPR, PT Cable Detection Concrete X-ray Orlando, Concrete GPR Tampa, Concrete GPR Florida, Concrete GPR Houston
Concrete Rebar GPR PT Cable Detection

Concrete Rebar GPR X-ray is often considered superior to GPR (ground penetrating radar) for imaging the interior contents of a concrete slab due to the clarity and accuracy the image. X-rays are also inherently easier to interpret. However, in practical field applications, GPR is a more common approach. X-ray imaging will always require access to both sides of the concrete target – so a slab on grade concrete target cannot use x-ray at all. Learn More about the difference between the 2 services.

HOW CONCRETE REBAR GPR NDT TESTINGS WORKS.

concrete rebar gpr tampa
Rebar GPR, PT cable location scanning using hilti PS 1000 in Tampa and surrounding areas

TAKING X-RAYS IMAGES OF CONCRETE & Steel X-ray Welds
A typical concrete x-ray set up requires 2 operators – one for the detector and one for the source. While capturing the concrete imaging, the 2 operators are on different floors – each making sure that the exclusion zone is clearly marked and no accidental intrusions occur. The detector is most often on the upper floor facing down while the x-ray source is below facing up, although an inverted setup is also possible. It is important to line up the detector with the source to ensure the emitted rays are directly striking the detector (perpendicular) and not coming from an angle. Complete remote control is possible, or the source operator will manually switch on the x-ray beam first (assuming a x-ray tube is used) and then call the detector operator to switch open the panel and take an image. When isotopes are used the source operator cranks out the isotope from its secure container exposing it the air and effectively firing gamma rays towards the detector.

COST OF CONCRETE X-RAY
Concrete rebar GPR testings are less expensive than XRAY due to its accuracy. The equipment is more expensive and a minimum of 2 operators is needed at all times. As a rule of thumb, concrete x-ray will cost double the hourly rate of GPR – although pricing by image may be more attractive for both parties. $150-$170 per image is fairly standard, combined with a mobilization charge of several hundred dollars. Night and weekend work is charged at 1.5 times standard rates which can lead to overtime rates too.

Protection from radiation is an important aspect of industrial radiography. The International Atomic Energy Authority (IAEA) had developed basic safety guidelines regarding the practice.

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Forensic Engineers Florida

Forensic Engineers Florida

Forensic Engineers Florida at EMA Forensic Associates are Structural engineers in Orlando, Tampa & Clearwater, Houston, New Orleans to provide the highest quality of engineering , and investigation for cause and origin, failure and collapse reasons, construction defects and deficiencies, structural design short comings and expert witness services available. Our services includes damage inspections, structural damage assessment, roof damage inspections, fire damage inspections, building structural assessments, structural foundation collapse and assessment.

EMA engineers Florida is the investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail or do not operate or function as intended, causing personal injury or damage to property. The consequences of failure are dealt with by the law of product liability.

Our engineers in Florida, Texas, Louisiana & North Carolina  provide cause and origin, buildings defects, construction defects, investigations,site investigation, testing, technical research, and analysis of the information to provide our clients with an independent opinion on the cause of failure.

Forensic Engineers Florida
Forensic engineers services in Florida, Texas, Louisiana

Job of Forensic Engineers Investigations

Our team of experienced forensic engineers throughout Florida offer the following areas of expertise:

– Building Defects investigation.
– Collapse & Insurance Claims and Reports
– Structural Condition Assessments
– Discovery Assistance
– Second Opinion Structural & Forensic Inspections for Dispute Resolution
– Expert Witness & Testimonial by Engineers

We provide structural & forensic damage assessment reports to insurance, as well as adjuster clients for building failures, natural disasters and failures due to design or construction deficiencies. We also provide estimates for repairs based on original values and ASV. Whether the collapse is due to a design fault, natural disasters, deficient structural deign or over-stressing. we can provide you good enough reports that can tell u the real problem.

Forensic Engineers Structural Integrity & Damage Assessment.

Forensic investigation to find the cause and origin of a collapse or incidence is an aspect of engineering which deals with the ability of a structure to support a designed load (weight, force) without breaking, and includes the study of past structural failures in order to prevent failures in future designs.

Structural integrity is the ability of an item—either a structural component or a structure consisting of many components—to hold together under a load, including its own weight, without breaking or deforming excessively. The phenominon of breakage or collapse and damage is investigated by engineers who have knowledge and experience of how a structure works.  It assures that the construction will perform its designed function during reasonable use, for as long as its intended life span. Items are constructed with structural integrity to prevent catastrophic failure, which can result in injuries, severe damage, death, and/or monetary losses.

Structural failure refers to the loss of structural integrity, or the loss of load -carrying capacity in either a structural component, or the structure itself. Structural failure is initiated when a material is stressed beyond its strength limit, causing fracture or excessive deformations; one limit state that must be accounted for in structural design is ultimate failure strength. In a well- designed system, a localized failure should not cause immediate or even progressive collapse of the entire structure.

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Masonry Inspections

Masonry Inspections Services

Masonry Inspections of older buildings determines that some masonry problems are regional, but many occur nationwide. Here’s an overview of 10 common construction problems that masonry contractors face.

Efflorescence in masonry forensics

When water containing dissolved salts evaporates from a masonry structure it leaves a salt deposit (Figure 1). The stain is called efflorescence. Salts may be present in all types of masonry materials: mortar, brick, concrete block, stucco, and plaster. Or they may be in water that enters the masonry, which can be determined during  masonry inspections.

masonry inspections
masonry inspections of Efflorescence

MASONRY INSPECTIONS with Corroded Masonry

Corrosion in masonry forensics

In the presence of water and oxygen, steel rebars in bond beams, grouted cells, or collar joints will corrode. Horizontal joint reinforcement, ties that hold multi-wythe masonry walls together, or anchors that attach a veneer wall to a support also are susceptible to corrosion and can be found by masonry inspections for corrosion. Rust, the product of corrosion, occupies up to six times the original volume of steel. This volume expansion causes cracks that let in more water and thus cause even more corrosion.

The most common materials used for reinforcing are un-coated steel, zinc-coated steel, and hot-dipped galvanized steel. The coatings and the alkaline mortar provide some corrosion protection. There is, however, no substitute for good tight mortar joints and flashing that minimize the amount of moisture entering and accumulating in the masonry.

Also, avoid adding chloride to mortar or grout; soluble chlorides accelerate corrosion. And don’t install dissimilar metals such as copper and steel in the same wall. When there’s moisture in the wall, dissimilar metals sometimes react and cause corrosion too.

Masonry Inspections of Historic Buildings.

Masonry Inspection of construction will be performed more frequently in the near future due to requirements in the 1999 MSJC (Masonry Standards Joint Committee) Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures (ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402) and Specification for Masonry Structures (ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602), and the International Building Code (IBC). The need for inspection is increasing in every facet of building construction, as assurance that construction complies with the plans and specifications is being desired by owners, and especially by insurance industries and the federal government who so often have to pay for extensive repairs or replacements when buildings that are not constructed properly fail. More rigorous inspection is due in part because of the drastic difference in performance of well-constructed and poorly constructed buildings of all types. Investigators of buildings after natural disasters commonly report that a significant cause of damage is improper construction. Excessive damage due to such poor construction is unacceptable, and many believe that inspection will help produce higher quality construction, as it has in other industries.

Three levels of quality assurance were developed based on the method of design and the importance of the structure. Structures that must maintain their function immediately after natural disasters (i.e. hospitals and fire stations) are classified as essential structures and must be inspected to a great degree (higher level). Methods of design and construction that are more typical in nature do not require as extensive an inspection program as methods employing more elaborate design and construction methods. Figure 3 shows a simplistic flow chart of how to determine the minimum level of inspection required based on the building’s importance (essential or non-essential) and the design method. MSJC Code Tables 1.14.1.1, 1.14.1.2 and 1.14.1.3 show the minimum quality assurance requirements for each level.

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Forensic Building Engineers

Forensic Building Engineers

Forensic Building Engineers Services are outstandingly provided by EMA Engineering’s expertise in Forensic building Engineering and Building Damage Assessment after, fires, hurricanes and natural disasters and floods.

Highly experienced forensic building engineers with engineering experience and engineering junior staff are available for investigation, diagnosis, assessment and remediation advice covering, buildings and structures for damage of all types. We have experience of providing damage assessment and forensic inspections after major hurricanes including Andrew, Charlie, Katrina & Rita. Our Forensic Building engineers have worked through various hurricanes, storms and natural disasters. Our structural engineers analyse the damages whereas our forensic engineers investigate the cause and origin of the collapse, damage or the issues of concern involved after an incidence.

We are trusted by the architects, property owners, builders, insurers and loss adjusters to establish the root cause of building and structural failures and to determine cost effective remedial works.

forensic building engineers
EMA forensic building engineers services in Florida, Texas, Louisiana.
  • Structural / Building Assessments, building forensic engineers, Inspections and Forensic Investigations.
  • Investigation and damage assessment of all types of buildings and structures, retaining walls, pavements, water tanks and swimming pools.
  • Expert Witness and Reporting service for legal proceedings and court hearings.
  • Building and Structural Defects and Damage Causation investigation and reporting.
  • Cause of damage determination and repair specification for the insurance industry.
  • Remediation advice and disaster assessment following fire, storm, earthquake and flood events.
  • Pre-purchase building inspections for residential, commercial and industrial properties.
  • Preventative risk assessments.
  • Building maintenance appraisals and recommendations.
  • Dilapidation surveys prior/post construction.
  • Building movement and underpinning.
  • Infrastructure damage and emergency management plans (buildings, bridges and other structures).
  • General building inspections, providing structural and building advice to property owners.
Forensic Building Engineers Damage Assessment.
Forensic Building damage inspections in Florida, Texas & Louisiana.

Purpose of Building Engineers

The purpose of the Forensic building engineers and Structural Engineers is to perform cause and origin of structural damages due to structural design faults, construction defects and ill maintained buildings, bridges, silos, and other superstructures.  Our engineers have extensive experience with the basics for the investigation of failures and understanding some of the pertinent legal aspects, which has prepared us for the eventual practice of forensic structural engineering.

Engineering investigation and determination of the causes of structural failures of buildings, bridges and other constructed facilities, as well as rendering opinions and giving testimony in judicial proceedings, often referred to as Forensic Building Engineers, where most of the investigation is performed by forensic building engineers in teaming up with structural engineers, has become a field of professional practice of its own in the US. With rapid economic development, increased design sophistication, more-and-more daring construction technology and accelerated project delivery came the proliferation of structural failures throughout the world. Several countries are reviewing and/or streamlining technical, business, and legal procedures modeled on US practices – with both their advantages and faults – which require expert consultants/witnesses in both the forensic investigation and in the ensuing dispute resolution. Our engineers have extensive engineering experience in all facets of damage origin determination.

Our forensic building engineers are well versed in the challenges associated with performing critical investigations and the analysis involved with the determination of cause and origin. We have conducted condition assessments and investigations of commercial and residential buildings, high-rise condominiums, warehouses, industrial facilities, seawalls, piers, boardwalks, vaults, retaining walls, bridges, and box culverts. Our capabilities also include cost estimation and design services for repairs, modifications, and restoration. We work alongside property managers and owners to address necessary maintenance items for existing structures, and offer construction phase services that lead to the quality implementation of repairs.

Our Building Engineers experience includes:

  • Buildings
  • Bridges
  • Warehouses
  • Industrial Facilities
  • Stormwater and Utility Structures
  • Water / Wastewater Plant Facilities
  • Culverts and Other Municipal Structures

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Private Provider

Private provider

Effective October 1, 2002, Florida Statute 553.791 allows the owner of a proposed building to use a Private engineer for building code inspections and plans review services for compliance with the Florida Building Code. The Statute allows the private provider to perform these services on the building that are covered by that person’s licensure as to the structural, mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and accessibility components of the building.
EMA can provide licensed engineers and staff, who works with the local jurisdictions as well as on-site structural engineers & forensic engineers to ensure code compliance on each project. Our quick response to jobsite work in progress minimizes expensive construction delays due to inspection scheduling.  Our structural engineers staff provides the highest level of customer service to help deliver a project on time and on budget. We will inspect your project to ensure compliance with the Florida Building Code with the following inspections:

  • Structural Inspections
  • Mechanical Inspections
  • Plumbing Inspections
  • Electrical Inspections’
  • Building Inspections

Private Structural Plan Review
EMA can provide Certified Plans Examiners licensed per Florida Statutes Chapters, 468, 471 or 481. EMA will review the plans for compliance with the Florida Building Code for the Structural engineers and Building Disciplines. Our structrual engineers can work with your design professionals during design development to ensure code compliance of the finished product, thus minimizing the time between design completion and permit issuance.  We will provide the following Plans Review services:

  • Structural Plans Review
  • Mechanical Plans Review
  • Plumbing Plans Review
  • Electrical Plans review
Structural inspections building orlando, structural inspections florida, structural inspections

Structural Inspections

Structural Inspections

EMA can provide structural inspections during construction of different type of building projects for the following cases

Building Foundations, Building Piling, Building Construction.

Inspections of CMU & masonry construction.

Inspections concrete & steel structures

40 Year re-certification inspections in Dade & Broward County

Working building inspections

Project construction inspections.
Hurricane damage Inspections
Special buildings Inspection
Quality Assurance Inspections
Inspections of damages
Fire Damage Inspections
Residential/Commercial Inspections

Structural Inspections of New Structures

Flood Inspections Retaining.
Threshold Buildings Inspections
School  Construction Inspections
Tree Damage Inspections
Framing Inspections
Shoring Inspections

structural inspections
Structural design and engineering inspection. Concrete building design

Structural INSPECTIONS Process

Quality control monitoring and proper inspection of a roofing system will provide a good water tight roof. It is important to monitor the condition of the roofing system through proper inspection at frequent time intervals to discover damage to the roof. Small imperfections can be corrected with minimal maintenance. No roof system can be expected to give long term performance without some attention and maintenance. Too frequently, roofs are forgotten until a leak develops. Most problems begin in a small way and if left undetected, develop into a more expensive need for repairs, or in the extreme, need replacement of the roof.

Structural Inspections monitoring services
Structural Inspections monitoring services.

Many engineering firms do not offer residential services. At EMA Structural, we understand the residential market and the homeowner. We value their business and our team is proud to service this sector. Most of the work that we perform for residential homeowners begins with an onsite engineering assessment. Our licensed engineers make a site visit to the property. We survey the areas of concern and assess the severity of the structural problems in question.

After a site investigation is conducted, our structural engineers prepare a structural engineering report outlining onsite findings, identifying probable cause of the structural issue and recommendations for remediation of any structural deficiency un-covered. We provide our clients with a photograph log documenting existing conditions at the time of the site visit.

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Structural engineers, forensic engineers

Structural Engineers

Structural Engineers

EMA Structural engineers are provide all type of engineering, renovations and inspections of  residential, commercial, office and high rise buildings  and our engineers have extensive knowledgeable and experienced engineers in Orlando and Tampa, for your structural design. Our design structural engineers and construction Inspectors for various structures provide including multi-million airport buildings, sport arenas, residential jobs, condominiums, 2- 18 story buildings, and commercial structures. We use state of art engineering software as STAAD, ETABS, RISA FLOOR and else to design the frame for optimal structural loads and structural serviceability.

structural engineers
EMA structural engineers

EMA provide commercial industrial warehouse building design and restoration services. We provide structural engineering analysis & design of residential, commercial and warehouses design, analysis, and specification writing for any structural project including concrete, precast, steel and misc. metals specifications and also threshold inspections.

Structural Engineers EXPERIENCE

EMA has experience with many residential and commercial projects including: mid/high rise buildings, retail spaces, hotels, churches, multi-family buildings, condominiums, custom homes, townhouses, mixed-use structures, hoist engineering, steel frames, product testing, and various types of inspections. Our structural engineers Orlando, Tampa, Miami can design any structure. Here is a list of our current products and systems allowing you and your clients more choices in design and construction.

POST-TENSIONING DESIGN:
Longer spans in design and greater flexibility. Economical design for highrise buildings

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS:
Greater precision and efficiency in structural design and analysis of structures.

TWO-WAY CONCRETE FLAT FLOOR DESIGN:
More freedom in structural design; flexible column placement. Elimination of beam support under floors.

STEEL FRAME DESIGN:
A sometimes viable alternative to high concrete costs and extensive precast concrete waiting times.

TILT-UP CONSTRUCTION:
An often economical design choice for offices, warehouses etc.

PRE-CAST CONSTRUCTION:
(Such as pre-cast beam/joist systems and hollow core planks), allowing more options for contractors.

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS ANALYZES

Structural Engineering is a specialty within Civil Engineering. Structural Engineers create drawings and specifications, perform calculations, review the work of other engineers, write reports and evaluations, and observe construction sites. A Professional Engineer’s license is required in order to practice Structural Engineering. A license can be obtained only after completing a prescribed amount of education and work experience, and taking a 2-day exam. In California and other states, certain structures, such as hospitals and schools, require a Structural Engineer’s license, which can be obtained after 3 years additional experience and taking another exam.

The basic tasks of structural engineering relate numerical quantities of physical forces to physical configurations of force-resisting elements. Analysis is the process of determining forces in each element in a structure (such as a beam) when the configuration of elements is already defined. Design is the process of configuring elements to resist forces whose values are already known. Analysis and Design are complementary procedures in the overall process of designing new structures. After performing a preliminary design, the designer estimates the final configuration of elements of a structure, but only until an analysis is performed can the forces in those elements be known. After performing an analysis, the element forces are known, and the elements can be designed (their configuration can be chosen) more precisely. The process iterates between analysis and design until convergence is achieved.

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